Finvenkismo is an ideological current within the Esperanto movement dating back to Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto. The name is derived from the concept of Fina Venko ("Final Victory") denoting the moment when Esperanto will be used as the predominant second language throughout the world. A Finvenkist is thus someone who hopes for and/or works towards this "Final Victory" of Esperanto. According to some Finvenkists, this "Final Victory" of Esperanto may help eradicate war, chauvinism and cultural oppression.
Recently some Esperantists have been trying to replace the expression "Fina Venko" (Final Victory) with "Fina Sukceso" (Final Success) because "Fina Venko" reminds some people of war, like the German "Endsieg".
As Zamenhof created Esperanto with the goal of eventual use by everyone as a second language for international communication, Finvenkismo has been around for as long as Esperanto itself. In the early days of the Esperanto movement, being an Esperantist practically implied being a Finvenkist, i.e. hoping for the "Final Victory" of Esperanto. However, as the Esperanto movement (i.e. the movement for the propagation of Esperanto) grew by convincing people of the ideals of Finvenkismo, the Esperanto community (i.e. those who speak Esperanto independently of whether they propagate it) became a lively language community, and thus got more and more independent of the Esperanto movement with its ideology of Finvenkismo. Thus, one could now be an Esperantist without being a Finvenkist at all.
Since 1980, Finvenkismo encountered criticism by so-called Raŭmismo. This ideological current interprets the Esperanto community as a language diaspora, whose members should not concentrate on the propagation of the language but rather on its cultivation. The term Raŭmismo comes from a manifesto signed by many participants of the Youth Esperanto Congress in the Finnish town Rauma in 1980.
Soon the word Raŭmismo acquired two different meanings: According to some, a Raŭmist is just someone who uses Esperanto without propagating it. According to the more ideological Raŭmismo, a Raŭmist is someone who considers the Esperanto community a self chosen linguistic minority and supports attempts to get a state-like representation for this minority. This more ideological Raŭmismo is now often called Civitanismo, because it is the official ideology of the Esperanta Civito (Esperanto Citizens' Community), an organisation which attempts to be such a state-like representation of the Esperanto diaspora.
Even though nowadays most Esperantists highly value cultivating the language -- and the proportion of Esperanto-speakers who cultivate the language without propagating it is larger than ever -- the ideological Raŭmismo (Civitanismo) has isolated itself somewhat within the Esperanto community because Civitanists are perceived to spend more energy on criticising the Finvenkist Esperanto movement than on cultivating Esperanto.
In response to the criticisms from Raŭmismo, the Finvenkist Esperanto movement has produced the Prague manifesto, which attempts at showing the importance of Finvenkismo in our modern society by emphasizing democratic communication, language rights, preservation of language diversity, and effective language education.