Elias Magnus Fries
|Elias Magnus Fries|
15 August 1794|
|Died||8 February 1878
|Alma mater||Lund University|
|Known for||Founder of modern fungal taxonomy|
|Author abbreviation (botany)||Fr.|
Elias Magnus Fries (15 August 1794 – 8 February 1878) was a Swedish mycologist and botanist.
He was born at Femsjö (Hylte Municipality), Småland, the son of the pastor there. He acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants from his father. In 1811 Fries entered Lund University where he took the doctorate in 1814. In the same year he was appointed an associate professorship in botany, and in 1824, became a full professor. In 1834 he became Borgström professor (Swed. Borgströmianska professuren, a chair endowed by Eric Erichsson Borgström, 1708–1770) in applied economics at Uppsala University. The position was changed to "professor of botany and applied economics" in 1851. That year he was also appointed director of the Uppsala University Botanical Garden. In 1853, he became rector of the University. In 1821, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Fries most important works were the three-volume Systema mycologicum (1821–1832), Elenchus fungorum (1828), the two-volume Monographia hymenomycetum Sueciae (1857 and 1863) and Hymenomycetes Europaei (1874).
Fries is considered to be, after Christian Hendrik Persoon, a founding father of the modern taxonomy of mushrooms. His taxonomy of mushrooms was influenced by Goethe and the German romantics. He utilized spore color and arrangement of the hymenophore (pores, gills, teeth etc.) as major taxonomic characteristics.
When he died, The Times commented: "His very numerous works, especially on fungi and lichens, give him a position as regards those groups of plants only comparable to that of Linnaeus". Fries was succeeded in the Borgström professorship by Johan Erhard Areschoug, after whom Theodor Magnus Fries, the son of Elias, held the chair.
- "Fries, Elias Magnus". Nordisk Familjebok (in Swedish) 8 (2 ed.). 1908. pp. 1393–1397. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fries, Elias Magnus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Fries, Elias Magnus". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- Gulden, Gro; Eckblad, Finn-Egil (2007). "Elias Magnus Fries". In Henriksen, Petter. Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
- The Times, Thursday, Feb 21, 1878; pg. 6; Issue 29184; col C
- "Author Query for 'Fr.'". International Plant Names Index.
- "Elias Magnus Fries", Authors of fungal names, Mushroom, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming.
- Web site of the Descendants of Elias Fries Association
- "Fries, Elias Magnus". New International Encyclopedia. 1906.