Eastern Ukraine or East Ukraine (Ukrainian: Східна Україна, Skhidna Ukrayina) is an important geographical term and generally includes territories of Ukraine east of Dnieper river, particularly Sloboda Ukraine, Donets basin, Azov Sea Littoral. Almost third of whole population of the country lives within the region that includes three cities with population over a million. The major river of eastern Ukraine is Seversky Donets.
The territory is heavily urbanized. Eastern Ukraine is commonly associated with the Donbas. The three biggest metropolitan cities form an industrial triangle within the region. Among the major cities are:
Russian is the dominant language in the region (in the schools of the Ukrainian SSR learning Ukrainian was mandatory). Effective in August 2012, a new law on regional languages entitles any local language spoken by at least a 10% minority be declared official within that area. Russian was within weeks declared as a regional language in several southern and eastern oblasts and cities. Russian can now be used in these cities/Oblasts administrative office work and documents.
Noticeable cultural differences in the region (compared with the rest of Ukraine except Southern Ukraine) are more "positive views" on the Russian language and on Joseph Stalin and more "negative views" on Ukrainian nationalism. Calculating the "yes"-votes as a percentage of the total electorate reveals a lower percentage of all (possible) voters in Eastern and Southern Ukraine supported Ukrainian independence in the 1991 Ukrainian independence referendum than in the rest of the country.
During elections voters of the Eastern (and Southern) oblasts (provinces) of Ukraine vote for parties (CPU, Party of Regions) and presidential candidates (Viktor Yanukovych) with a pro-Russian and status quo platform. The electorate of CPU and Party of Regions is very loyal to them.
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- Yanukovych signs language bill into law. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Russian spreads like wildfires in dry Ukrainian forest. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Romanian becomes regional language in Bila Tserkva in Zakarpattia region, Kyiv Post (24 September 2012)
- The language question, the results of recent research in 2012, RATING (25 May 2012)
- (Ukrainian) Ставлення населення України до постаті Йосипа Сталіна Attitude population Ukraine to the figure of Joseph Stalin, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (1 March 2013)
- Who’s Afraid of Ukrainian History? by Timothy D. Snyder, The New York Review of Books (21 September 2010)
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- Ivan Katchanovski. (2009). Terrorists or National Heroes? Politics of the OUN and the UPA in Ukraine Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Political Science Association, Montreal, June 1–3, 2010
- Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 396)
- Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (3 January 2011)
- Eight Reasons Why Ukraine’s Party of Regions Will Win the 2012 Elections by Taras Kuzio, The Jamestown Foundation (17 October 2012)
UKRAINE: Yushchenko needs Tymoshenko as ally again by Taras Kuzio, Oxford Analytica (5 October 2007)
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