Duke of Rutland
Duke of Rutland is a title in the Peerage of England, derived from Rutland, a county in the East Midlands of England. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom are: Marquis of Granby (created 1703), Earl of Rutland (1525), Baron Manners, of Haddon in the County of Derby (1679), and Baron Roos of Belvoir, of Belvoir in the County of Leicester (1896). The title Baron Roos of Belvoir is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the remaining titles being in the Peerage of England. The most senior subsidiary title, Marquis of Granby, is the courtesy title used by the Duke's eldest son and heir.
First creation of the Earldom of Rutland
The title Earl of Rutland was created for Edward Plantagenet, (1373–1415), son of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, and grandson of King Edward III. Upon the Duke's death in 1402 Edward became Duke of York. The title Earl of Rutland fell in to disuse upon his death at the Battle of Agincourt, and was assumed by other members of the House of York including first earl's nephew Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, the father of King Edward IV, and his second son Edmund.
Thomas Manners (c. 1488–1543), son of the 12th Baron de Ros of Hamlake, Truibut and Belvoir, was created Earl of Rutland in the Peerage of England in 1525. His mother, Anne St Leger, was Richard Plantagenet's granddaughter. The barony of 'de Ros of Hamlake, Truibut and Belvoir' (sometimes spelled Ros, Roos or de Roos) was created by Simon de Montfort with a writ of summons to the House of Lords for Robert de Ros (1223–1285) in 1264. The title may pass through the female line when there is no male heir, and accordingly, when the 3rd earl, Edward Manners (c. 1548–1587), left no sons, the barony of Ros passed to the family of his daughter Elizabeth (d. 1591) who became the wife of William Cecil, Earl of Exeter.
Edward Manners' successor as the 4th earl was his brother John (d. 1588). The barony of Ros was restored to the Manners family when Francis Manners, the 6th earl (1578–1632), inherited it in 1618 from his cousin William Cecil (1590–1618). However, Francis died without male issue and the assumption of the courtesy title of Lord Ros for the eldest son of subsequent earls appears to have had no legal basis. On the death of the seventh Earl in 1641 the Earldom passed to his distant cousin John Manners of Haddon Hall, grandson of the second son of the first Earl. The ninth Earl was created Duke of Rutland and Marquis of Granby in 1703 by Queen Anne.
The original coat of arms of the Manners family has plain gules in chief. The quartering in chief, with the fleurs-de-lis of France and lion passant guardant of England, was granted by King Henry VIII to Thomas Manners at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland, in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from King Edward IV.
The most notable Marquis of Granby was John Manners (1721–1770), son of the third Duke. An accomplished soldier and popular figure of his time, his title was honoured by being used by a very large number of public houses throughout Britain. The towns of Granby, Quebec and Granby, Massachusetts, United States were also named after him.
In 2009, as part of the celebrations to mark the 500th anniversary of the occupancy of Belvoir Castle by the Manners family, two aircraft from RAF Cranwell, Lincolnshire, bore the Duke of Rutland's Coat of Arms. On 11 June 2009 the Duke visited the station to see the aircraft — a King Air from 45 (Reserve) Sqn and a Dominie from 55 (Reserve) Sdn.
Earls of Rutland, first creation (1385)
- Other titles (1st Duke): Duke of York (1385), Duke of Aumale (1397–1399), Earl of Cambridge (1362–1414), Earl of Rutland (1390–1402), Earl of Cork (c. 1396)
Edward of Norwich's brother, Richard of Conisburgh, had been attainted and executed for treason in August 1415. This attainture stood in the way of his son Richard Plantagenet succeeding Edward until the king deemed it prudent to restore them.
- Other titles (2nd Duke): Duke of York (1385, restored 1425–1460), Earl of Ulster (1264), Earl of March (1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414, restored 1426), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)
- Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (1411–1460), son of Richard of Conisburgh
The Earldom fell out of use after the 2nd Earl. Its heir ascended the throne as Edward IV, so it would have merged with the throne anyway.
Earls of Rutland, second creation (1526)
- Other titles (1st–3rd & 6th Earls): Baron de Ros of Helmsley (1299)
- Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland (c. 1488–1543), son of The Lord de Ros
- Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland (c. 1516–1563), eldest son of the 1st Earl
- Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland (1549–1587), elder son of the 2nd Earl, died without male issue
- John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland (c. 1552–1588), younger son of the 2nd Earl
- Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland (1576–1612), eldest son of the 4th Earl, died without issue
- Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland, Lord Ros (1578–1632), second son of the 4th Earl, died without male issue
- George Manners, 7th Earl of Rutland (1580–1641), third son of the 4th Earl, died without issue
- John Manners, 8th Earl of Rutland (1604–1679), great-grandson of the 1st Earl
- John Manners, 9th Earl of Rutland (1638–1711), created Duke of Rutland in 1703
Dukes of Rutland (1703)
- Other titles: Marquis of Granby (1703), Earl of Rutland (1525), Baron Manners of Haddon (1679) and Baron Roos of Belvoir (1896)
- John Manners, 1st Duke of Rutland (1638–1711), only son of the 8th Earl
- John Manners, 2nd Duke of Rutland (1676–1721), son of the 1st Duke
- John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland (1696–1779), eldest son of the 2nd Duke
- John Manners, Marquess of Granby (1721–1770), eldest son of the 3rd Duke, predeceased his father
- John Manners, Lord Roos (1751–1760), eldest son of Lord Granby, died young
- Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland (1754–1787), second son of Lord Granby
- John Henry Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland (1778–1857), eldest son of the 4th Duke
- George John Henry Manners, Marquis of Granby (1807), eldest son of the 5th Duke, died in infancy
- George John Frederick Manners, Marquis of Granby (1813–1814), second son of the 5th Duke, died in infancy
- Charles Cecil John Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland (1815–1888), third son of the 5th Duke, died unmarried
- John James Robert Manners, 7th Duke of Rutland (1818–1906), fourth son of the 5th Duke
- Henry John Brinsley Manners, 8th Duke of Rutland (1852–1925), eldest son of the 7th Duke
- Robert Charles John Manners, Lord Manners (1885–1894), elder son of the 8th Duke, died young
- John Henry Montagu Manners, 9th Duke of Rutland (1886–1940), younger son of the 8th Duke
- Charles John Robert Manners, 10th Duke of Rutland (1919–1999), eldest son of the 9th Duke
- David Charles Robert Manners, 11th Duke of Rutland (b. 1959), eldest son of the 10th Duke
The heir apparent is Charles John Montague Manners, Marquis of Granby (b. 1999), elder son of the 11th Duke
- The general armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, Comprising a Registry of Armorial Bearings from the Earliest to the Present Time by Sir Bernard Burke, 1884 edition, p. 656
- http://www.belvoircastle.com/500anniversary.asp accessed 21 July 2010