David McHattie Forbes
|David McHattie Forbes|
|Born||July 21, 1863
|Died||March 23, 1937 (age 73)
|Education||Common and Night Schools in Scotland|
|Occupation||Botanist, Collector, South Kohala District Forester and Magistrate of Waimea, Hawaii|
|Children||Blodwyn, David Merlyn, Allister, Dyfrig, Mary Elizabeth|
|Parents||Alexander Forbes, Mary McHattie|
David McHattie Forbes (July 21, 1863 – March 23, 1937) was a Scottish botanist, ethnologist, sugar plantation manager and explorer on the island of Hawai'i. He practiced forestry, agronomy, and horticulture and served as the first district forester of South Kohala in 1905, and twenty years later was appointed a judge in Waimea. He was the discoverer in 1905 of what became known as the Forbes Collection, the greatest collection of Polynesian artifacts ever found. His family preserved his third of the found objects for half a century and then donated them to the Volcanoes National Park in 1956. The objects were on public view for 34 years until 1990, when with the passage of NAGPRA in 1990, they were each evaluated to be priceless as well as subject to repatriation and removed permanently from the public. The remaining two thirds of the objects found in the Forbes Cave, were sold to the Bishop Museum by Forbes' two expedition partners, Wilhelm Wagener and Friedrich Haehnisch.
Born in Scotland, the son of Alexander and Mary (McHattie) Forbes, he was educated in common schools in Scotland.
He began working in the private estate nurseries of Moray, Scotland in 1879 and later in the forests of the same estate. In 1882, he worked in the nurseries of Dixon & Co., Edinburgh. In 1883 he became the Foreman Forester for the estate of Fletcher's Saltoun Hall, the seat of the oldest and largest private library in Scotland. In 1887, at the behest of William H. Purvis, he traveled to Kukuihaele near Waipio Valley, Hawaii, via Cape Horn, to manage an experiment in cinchona cultivation above the sugar line. Purvis, who had already introduced the macademia nut from Australia, recognized the potential benefits to finding a species of tree that would thrive in the land above the sugar cane, and the bark of the cinhona he imported from Ceylon had a promising yield ration between bark and quinine. When Purvis' plantation was transferred to the Pacific Sugar Mill Company, in which Samuel Parker invested in 1879, D. M. Forbes succeeded C. Von Mengersen as manager, running the Pacific Sugar Mill from 1893–1907.
He returned to Scotland in 1910, and then back to Waiakea, Hilo in 1912. He took the position of manager of the Waiakea Mill Company of Hilo. Finally settled in Waimea and was appointed to the rank of District Magistrate, South Kohala, Hawaii in 1929, and reappointed in 1932. He was the founder of Scouting in Waimea.
Kukuihaele is the site of the original Hawaiian Island stand of cinchona trees, from which quinine is made. They were planted by David McHattie Forbes in 1887 on the forest lands of the Pacific Sugar Mill Company, one patch of approximately 3 acres (12,000 m2) extent at an elevation of 2,000 feet (610 m), the other patch of 10 to 12 acres (49,000 m2) is at 2,200 feet (670 m) elevation. Despite the best available location, ample drainage and good soil, the Cinchona trees did not grow as healthy as most exotic plants introduced from a warm climate. Their value became so low compared to the price of labor that the attempt was abandoned in 1905.
A Banyan Tree still stands in David McHattie Forbes honor at Banyan Drive in Hilo, Hawaii, known as the "Hilo Walk of Fame." Next to Forbes, visitors will find such names as Amelia Earhart, Babe Ruth, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt on plaques affixed to the trees.
Forbes originated the "Waimea Vegetable and Flower Show" which developed under his leadership into the principal annual horticultural show in West Hawaii.
Forbes planted some camphorwood seedlings in the grounds of the manager's house of the Pacific Sugar Mill Company in the 1880s. Half a century later he used the fragrant wood of these same trees to carve the altar for the Imiola Church in Waimea. Carving of the altar was completed after his death by his son David Merlyn Lougher Forbes.
He introduced the Jack Fruit tree to Hawaii.
- "Paradise Almost Lost". Christopher Pala. In: Museum - March/April Issue 2008 | http://www.aam-us.org/pubs/mn/nagpra.cfm
- "Pacific Sugar Mill History". Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association Plantation Archives. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- "Annual Report of the Governor of Hawaii to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1929"
- "Annual Report of the Governor of Hawaii to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1932"
- Catherine Lougher: a biography, page 2, written by Thomas H. Lougher
- "Annual Report of the Governor of Hawaii to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1922 and 1924"
- "Forbes, David McHattie office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
- John William Siddall, ed. (1921). Men of Hawaii: being a biographical reference library, complete and authentic, of the men of note and substantial achievement in the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. p. 151.
- Hawaii City Data
- Een en ander over kina en overzicht der cultuur van kina. By Pieter van der Wielen (Amsterdam: 1905), pp. 31-32