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Boudhanath (Devnagari: बौद्धनाथ) (also called Boudha, Bouddhanath or Baudhanath or the Khāsa Caitya) is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in Kathmandu (Yambu), Nepal. It is known as Khāsti in Nepal Bhasa Jyarung Khasyor in Tamang language or as Bauddha by modern speakers of Nepali. Located about 11 km (6.8 mi) from the center and northeastern outskirts of Kathmandu, the stupa's massive mandala makes it one of the largest spherical stupas in Nepal.
The Buddhist stupa of Boudhanath dominates the skyline. The ancient Stupa is one of the largest in the world. The influx of large populations of refugees from Tibet has seen the construction of over 50 Tibetan Gompas (Monasteries) around Boudhanath. As of 1979, Boudhanath is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Along with Swayambhunath, it is one of the most popular tourist sites in the Kathmandu area.
The Stupa is on the ancient trade route from Tibet which enters the Kathmandu Valley by the village of Sankhu in the northeast corner, passes by Boudnath Stupa to the ancient and smaller stupa of Cā-bahī (often called 'Little Boudnath'). It then turns directly south, heading over the Bagmati river to Patan - thus bypassing the main city of Kathmandu (which was a later foundation). Tibetan merchants have rested and offered prayers here for many centuries. When refugees entered Nepal from Tibet in the 1950s, many decided to live around Bouddhanath. The Stupa is said to entomb the remains of Kassapa Buddha.
An Apsara of previous life, Jajima was born in a very ordinary family of the earth after the reduction of her religious merit from the heaven. She had four husbands. She gave the birth of four sons from each of her husband. Tajebu was born from horse trader, Phajebu from pig trader, khijebu from dog trader and Jyajebu from poultry business man. They had most religious aptitude, so they decided to construct the largest chhorten (stupa). The land, necessary for the construction of stupa was made available by Majyamija. The constructions of stupa were started in a speed. The construction materials like soil, bricks and stones were carried on elephants, horses, donkeys etc. Majyamija died after the construction of almost four stories of stupa after four years. And after the three years of ceaseless efforts, the sons constructed The Baudha stupa. It took almost seven years to complete the construction of the stupa. It is believed that thousands of Buddhas and heavenely Deities in-carvneted as Lama in the Bauddha stupa It is said that because of Rabne, the rays of Bouddhisattwa entered in the sung from the heaven and the holy sound of was head in the sky. Due to being empowered by the Bodhisatwa this stupa is addressed with a great reverence as sange, thange Duibe, Chhorten etc. After the completion of the construction of Bouddha stupa, Tajebu prayed very deeply to become the king of northern region to disseminate the religion, so he was the king Thichen Devajan of Tibet in his next life. Phajebu wished to be a scholar to disseminate the religion, and he became Bouddhisatwa, an enlightened teacher in Tibet in the next birth. Khijebu was incarnated as the enlightened Guru, Rinpochhe on Ashada Dashain (on the tenth day of lunar calendar of first half of Ashada) in Kashamir, at urgenyal, at south west point, at Dana Kukhya, in the milk pond at the flower of lotus and he suppressed the Demons who were barriers to the religion and conserved and protected the religion from the Demonic attacks. Jajebu prayed to be a minister for the protection of religion in the north and as his prayer he was born at Tibet and became the minister Bhamitisi. All of these person prayed for themselves but they did not pray for the animals, who transported, bricks, soil, and stone. So these animals became angry and the elephant prayed to be the Demon in the next life to eliminate the religion. So he became the king of Tibet in the form of Langdharm in the next life, where Tajebu had disseminated the holiest religion. In the same way, the Donkey prayed to become a minister in the next life to destroy the religion and he too became a minister 'Duilon Masyal Thoumbe" in Tibet. A bird crow listened the prayers of these animals who prayed for the destruction of the holiest religion, he (the crow) prayed to the Bauddha Stupa to be a minister to protect and conserve the holy religion killing the demonic king in the next life. And he was born as the brother of minister Lalan paldooc in the next life. The cowherds, shepherds, who prayed for the protection of religion and suppressions of demons (Who were tending to eliminate the holy religion), were born as ChhyolenGohi pemachaen in Tibet to conserve the religion. In the same way, chhodpurchan and sarse, these two Brahmins prayed to the stupa to give the birth in the holy country and to write the holy literature and they got the next life as Kavapalcheka and luigalchen and they translated thousands of holy teachings of Lord Buddha and wrote holy Kangyur too. In addition to this two crown princess of Nepal prayed to be the helpers in dissessminating the religion and to write the holy books, and they became Denama Chemang and Hegika Demoka in their next lives and they wrote many holy books. Along with this, religious king of Tibet, Dechen Devachan asked the greatest teacher Rinpoche that-"what could be the factor and cultural back ground of our previous life that made us deeply devoted in religion and active in disseminating religious matters" was answered and elaborately referred by the Guru as 'Jyarung Khasyor and its name, which is illustrated in Kambu Chhoi. This Bauddha stupa was built just after the demise of Lord Buddha and is largest one Chhyorten in the world. After every 12 years water is filled in the Bumba of chhorten. Many kgs of gold has been used for plating.
Legend of the Construction of the Stupa according to Tibetan Buddhist Mythology
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
- "The village that surrounds the great Kāṣyapa tower is generally known by the name of Boḍḍha. ...which in Tibetan is called Yambu Chorten Chenpo. Yambu is the general name by which Kāthmāndu is known in Tibet; and Chorten Chenpo means great tower. The real name of the tower in full is, however, Ja Rung Kashol Chorten Chenpo, which may be translated into: "Have finished giving the order to proceed with." The tower has an interesting history of its own which explains this strange name. It is said in this history that Kāṣyapa was a Buḍḍha that lived a long time before Shākyamuni Buḍḍha. after Kāṣyapa Buḍḍha's demise, a certain old woman, with her four sons, interred this great sage's remains at the spot over which the great mound now stands, the latter having been built by the woman herself. Before starting on the work of construction, she petitioned the King of the time, and obtained permission to "proceed with" building a tower. By the time that, as a result of great sacrifices on the part of the woman and her four sons, the groundwork of the structure had been finished, those who saw it were astonished at the greatness of the scale on which it was undertaken. Especially was this the case with the high officials of the country, who all said that if such a poor old dame were allowed to complete building such a stupendous tower, they themselves would have to dedicated a temple as great as a mountain, and so they decided to ask the King to disallow the further progress of the work. When the King was approached on the matter his Majesty replied: "I have finished giving the order to the woman to proceed with the work. Kings must not eat their words, and I cannot undo my orders now." So the tower was allowed to be finished, and hence its unique name, "Ja Rung Kashol Chorten Chenpo." I rather think, however, that the tower must have been built after the days of Shākyamuni Buḍḍha, for the above description from Tibetan books is different from the records in Sanskrit, which are more reliable than the Tibetan." the biggest stupa in Nepal
The Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī says Boudhhanath was founded by the Nepalese Licchavi king Śivadeva (c. 590-604 CE); though other Nepalese chronicles date it to the reign of King Mānadeva (464-505 CE). Tibetan sources claim a mound on the site was excavated in the late 15th or early 16th century and the bones of king Aṃshuvarmā 605-621 were discovered there.
However, the Tibetan emperor, Trisong Detsän (r. 755 to 797) is also traditionally associated with the construction of the Boudhanath Stupa.Yolmo Ngagchang Sakya Zangpo from Helambu resurrected Boudhanath.
- Snellgrove, David. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors, 2 vols., p. 365. (1987) Shambhala Publications, Boston. ISBN 0-87773-311-2 (v. 1); ISBN 0-87773-379-1 (v. 2).
- "Fables of Boudhanath and Changunarayan". nepalnews.com. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- Ekai Kawaguchi. Three Years in Tibet, (1909), pp. 35-36. Reprint: Book Faith India, Delhi (1995). ISBN 81-7303-036-7.
- Shaha, Rishikesh. Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 123. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8.
- Ehrhard, Franz-Karl (1990). "The Stupa of Bodhnath: A Preliminary Analysis of the Written Sources." Ancient Nepal - Journal of the Department of Archaeology, Number 120, October–November 1990, pp. 1-6.
- Ehrhard, Franz-Karl (1990). "The Stupa of Bodhnath: A Preliminary Analysis of the Written Sources." Ancient Nepal - Journal of the Department of Archaeology, Number 120, October–November 1990, pp. 7-9.
- The Legend of the Great Stupa and The Life Story of the Lotus Born Guru, pp. 21-29. Keith Dowman (1973). Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Center. Dharma Books. Berkeley, California.
- The Legend of the Great Stupa and The Life Story of the Lotus Born Guru. Keith Dowman. (1973). Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Center. Dharma Books. Berkeley, California.
- Psycho-cosmic Symbolism of the Buddhist Stūpa. Lama Anagarika Govinda. (1976) Dharma Books. Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-913546-35-6; ISBN 0-913546-36-4 (pbk).
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- Bodhnath Stupa: Boudhanath Virtual Tourist web-site