A literal Biblical interpretation is associated with the fundamentalist and evangelical hermeneutical approach to scripture—the historical-grammatical method—and is used extensively by Conservative Christians[disambiguation needed], in contrast to the historical-critical method of liberal Christians. The essence of this approach focuses upon the author's intent as the primary meaning of the text.Literal interpretation does place emphasis upon the referential aspect of the words or terms in the text. It does not, however, mean a complete denial of literary aspects, genre, or figures of speech within the text (e.g., parable, allegory, simile, or metaphor). Also literalism does not necessarily lead to total and complete agreement upon one single interpretation for any given passage.
There are two kinds of literal interpretation, letterism and the more common historical-grammatical method. Letterism attempts to uncover the meaning of the text through a strict emphasis upon a mechanical, wooden literalism of words. This approach often obscures the literary aspects and consequently the primary meaning of the text. The historical grammatical method is a hermeneutic technique that strives to uncover the meaning of the text by taking into account not just the grammatical words, but also the syntactical aspects, the cultural and historical background, and the literary genre.
Fundamentalists and evangelicals sometimes refer to themselves as "literalists" or Biblical literalists. Sociologists also use the term in reference to conservative Christian beliefs which include not just literalism but also inerrancy. Often the term Biblical literalism is used as a pejorative to describe or ridicule the interpretative approaches of fundamentalist or evangelical Christians. A 2011 Gallup survey reports, "Three in 10 Americans interpret the Bible literally, saying it is the actual word of God. That is similar to what Gallup has measured over the last two decades, but down from the 1970s and 1980s. A 49% plurality of Americans say the Bible is the inspired word of God but that it should not be taken literally, consistently the most common view in Gallup's nearly 40-year history of this question. Another 17% consider the Bible an ancient book of stories recorded by man."
The high regard for religious scriptures in the Judeo-Christian tradition seems to be related in part to a process of canonization of the Hebrew Bible which occurred over the course of a few centuries from approximately 200 BCE to 200 CE. In the Jewish tradition, the high-regard for the written word represented a direct conduit to the mind of God, and the attendant scholarship that accompanied a literary religion was encouraged in the later Rabbinical School of Judaism. Similarly, the canonization of the New Testament by the Early Christian Church was an important aspect in the formation of the separate religious identity for Christianity. The acceptance or rejection of specific scriptural books was a major indicator of group identity and played a role in determination of excommunications in Christianity and cherem in the Jewish tradition.
Church father Augustine of Hippo (354–430) wrote of the need for reason in interpreting Jewish and Christian scripture, and of much of the Book of Genesis being an extended metaphor. But Augustine also implicitly accepted the literalism of the creation of Adam and Eve, and explicitly accepted the literalism of the virginity of Jesus's mother Mary.
In the Reformation, Martin Luther separated the Biblical apocrypha from the rest of the Old Testament books, and later the Westminster Confession demoted them to a status that denied their canonicity. American Protestant literalists and Biblical inerrantists have adopted this truncated Protestant Bible as a work not merely inspired by God but, in fact, representing the Word of God without possibility of error or contradiction.
Clarity of scripture
The vast majority of evangelical and fundamentalist Christians hold that scripture is clear, that the basic meaning and teachings of scripture may be understood by the average person. It refers to the product (teachings of scripture) rather than the process of interpretation itself (exegesis). Martin Luther distinguished between external and internal aspects within the clarity of scripture. External clarity concerns the principles of hermeneutics (including grammatical aspects) and guidance into understanding through the process of interpretation. The internal clarity concerns illumination of the believer—that is, guidance into understanding by the Holy Spirit.
So clarity of scripture does not mean that no interpretation principles are necessary, or that there is no cultural gap between scripture and today. Instead exegesis and interpretation principles are utilized as part of the process to close the cultural gap in striving to understand. What the clarity of scripture does deny is that the Bible is a code to decipher, or that it cannot be understood apart from complex academic analysis as is typical in the historical-critical method of interpretation.
Biblical literalists believe that, unless a passage is clearly intended as allegory, poetry, or some other genre, the Bible should be interpreted as literal statements by the author. Who may appropriately decide when a passage is allegorical or literal, however, is not defined. Fundamentalists typically treat as simple history, according to its plain sense, such passages as the Genesis account of creation, the deluge and Noah's ark, and the unnaturally long life-spans of the patriarchs given in genealogies of Genesis, as well as the strict historicity of the narrative accounts of Ancient Israel, the supernatural interventions of God in history, and Jesus' miracles. Literalism does not question that parables, metaphors and allegory exist in the Bible, but rather relies on contextual interpretations based on the author's intention.
WE AFFIRM the necessity of interpreting the Bible according to its literal, or normal, sense. The literal sense is the grammatical-historical sense, that is, the meaning which the writer expressed. Interpretation according to the literal sense will take account of all figures of speech and literary forms found in the text. WE DENY the legitimacy of any approach to Scripture that attributes to it meaning which the literal sense does not support.
Noted inerrantist Norman Geisler in his commentary on the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics states:
The literal sense of Scripture is strongly affirmed here. To be sure the English word literal carries some problematic connotations with it. Hence the words normal and grammatical-historical are used to explain what is meant. The literal sense is also designated by the more descriptive title grammatical-historical sense. This means the correct interpretation is the one which discovers the meaning of the text in its grammatical forms and in the historical, cultural context in which the text is expressed.
Steve Falkenberg, professor of religious psychology at Eastern Kentucky University, observes:
I've never met anyone who actually believes the Bible is literally true. I know a bunch of people who say they believe the Bible is literally true but nobody is actually a literalist. Taken literally, the Bible says the earth is flat and sitting on pillars and cannot move (Ps 93:1, Ps 96:10, 1 Sam 2:8, Job 9:6). It says that great sea monsters are set to guard the edge of the sea (Job 41, Ps 104:26). ...
... a mentality [that] manifests itself [not] only in conservative churches, private-school enclaves, television programs of the evangelical right, and a considerable amount of Christian bookstore material; one often finds a literalist understanding of Bible and faith being assumed by those who have no religious inclinations, or who are avowedly antireligious in sentiment. Even in educated circles the possibility of more sophisticated theologies... is easily obscured by burning straw effigies of biblical literalism.
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Houghton Mifflin; 4 edition (September 14, 2000) defines literalism as "1. Adherence to the explicit sense of a given text or doctrine. 2. Literal portrayal; realism."
- Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. p. 643
- Beyond Biblical Literalism and Inerrancy: Conservative Protestants and the Hermeneutic Interpretation of Scripture, John Bartkowski, Sociology of Religion, 57, 1996.
- Elwell Evangelical Dictionary, Walter A. Elwell, Baker Publishing Group, May 1996, ISBN 0-8010-2049-2
- Ryrie, Charles Caldwell (1995). Dispensationalism (Rev. and expanded ed.). Chicago: Moody Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-8024-2187-3. p. 81
- Ramm, Bernard (1970). Protestant Biblical Interpretation. Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-7600-5. p.48
- Laurence Wood, 'Theology as History and Hermeneutics', (2005)
- George Regas, 'Take Another Look At Your Good Book', Los Angeles Times, February 3, 2000
- Dhyanchand Carr, 'Christian Council of Asia: Partnership in Mission, Conference on World Mission and the Role of Korean Churches, November 1995
- Jones, Jeffrey M. (July 8, 2011). "In U.S., 3 in 10 Say They Take the Bible Literally". Gallup.
- McDonald & Sanders, ed., The Canon Debate, page 4.
- A Van Der Kooij, et al. Canonization and Decanonization: Papers Presented to the International Conference of the Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (Lisor), Held at Leiden 9-10 January 1997. p. 141.
- De Genesi ad literam 1:19–20, Chapt. 19 , De Genesi ad literam, 2:9
- De Sacra Virginitate, 6,6, 18, 191.
- Osborne, Grant R (2006). The Hermeneutical Spiral: A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-2826-5. p. 27
- Zuck, Roy B (1991). Basic Bible Interpretation. Wheaton, Ill: Victor Books. p. 324. ISBN 0-89693-819-0. p. 26
- Lewis on Miracles, Art Lindsley, Knowing & Doing; A Teaching Quarterly for Discipleship of Heart and Mind: C.S. LEWIS INSTITUTE, Fall 2004
- The History and Impact of the Book, The Genesis Flood, John C. Whitcomb, Impact, Number 395, May 2006
- Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics With commentary by Norman L. Geisler, Reproduced from Explaining Hermeneutics: A Commentary on the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics, Oakland, California: International Council on Biblical Inerrancy, 1983.
- The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (1997)
- Falkenberg, Steve (2002). "Biblical Literalism". New Reformation. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Hyers, Conrad (August 4–11, 1982). "Biblical Literalism: Constricting the Cosmic Dance". Christian Century. p. 823. Retrieved 9 November 2012.