|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||228.13 g/mol|
73.4 °C, 347 K, 164 °F
220.3 °C, 493 K, 429 °F
|Solubility in water||602 g/100 cm3 (0 °C)
910 g/100 cm3 (20 °C)
|Solubility in organic solvents||soluble in ABS alcohol, methylene chloride, benzene, acetone, ethanol, dioxane, CS2, CCl4 chloroform, ether
insoluble in pyridine, quinoline, organic bases
|EU classification||Corrosive (C)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|S-phrases||(S1/2), S26, S45, S61|
|LD50||525 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
|Other anions||Antimony trifluoride
|Other cations||Nitrogen trichloride
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Antimony trichloride is prepared by reaction of chlorine with antimony, antimony tribromide, antimony trioxide, or antimony trisulfide. It also may be made by treating antimony trioxide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
- SbCl3 + H2O → SbOCl + 2 HCl
Antimony trichloride can behave as a Lewis base. However, such reactions are very limited. They include the formation of carbonyl complexes such as Fe(CO)3(SbCl3)2 and Ni(CO)3SbCl3.
- Fe(CO)5 + 2 SbCl3 → Fe(CO)3(SbCl3)2 + 2 CO
SbCl3 is a reagent for detecting vitamin A and related carotenoids in the Carr-Price test. The antimony trichloride reacts with the carotenoid to form a blue complex that can be measured by colorimetry.
Antimony trichloride has also been used to enhance the louche effect in absinthe. It has been used in the past to dissolve and remove horn stubs from calves without having to cut them off.
It is also used as a catalyst for polymerization, hydrocracking and chlorination reactions; as a mordant; and in the production of other antimony salts. Its solution is used as an analytical reagent for chloral, aromatics and vitamin A.
Appearance in popular culture
In episode 12 of the third season of the popular British program All Creatures Great and Small, several calves died following an episode of nonspecific gastroenteritis, the cause of which was later determined to be ingestion of antimony trichloride present in a solution used to dissolve their horn stubs.
- Zarychta, B.; Zaleski, J. "Phase transitions mechanism and distortion of SbCl63− octahedra in bis(n-butylammonium) pentachloroantimonate(III) (C4H9NH3)2[SbCl5]". Z. Naturforsch. B 2006, 61, 1101–1109. Abstract (PDF)
- Patnaik, P. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8.