AES instruction set
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Instruction Set (or the Intel Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) New Instructions (AES-NI)) is an extension to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008. The purpose of the instruction set is to improve the speed of applications performing encryption and decryption using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
||Perform one round of an AES encryption flow|
||Perform the last round of an AES encryption flow|
||Perform one round of an AES decryption flow|
||Perform the last round of an AES decryption flow|
||Assist in AES round key generation|
||Assist in AES Inverse Mix Columns|
||Carryless multiply (CLMUL).|
- Intel Westmere based processors, specifically:
- Intel Sandy Bridge processors:
- Intel Ivy Bridge processors
- All i5, i7, Xeon and i3-2115C only.
- Intel has a list of processors that support AES-NI on their web site
In AES-NI Performance Analyzed, Patrick Schmid and Achim Roos found, "... impressive results from a handful of applications already optimized to take advantage of Intel's AES-NI capability". A performance analysis using the Crypto++ security library showed an increase in throughput from approximately 28.0 cycles per byte to 3.5 cycles per byte with AES/GCM versus a Pentium 4 with no acceleration.
The following software is known to support the AES instruction set.
- Cryptographic Development Kit (CDK) 7.0 from Information Security Corp.
- Cryptography API: Next Generation (CNG) (requires Windows 7)
- Crypto++ 5.6.1
- CyaSSL - an open source SSL/TLS implementation supporting AES
- Crypto API (Linux) on Linux
- IAIK-JCE version 5.0
- Java (software) 7 HotSpot
- Libgcrypt 1.5.0-beta1
- Integrated Performance Primitives (IPP)
- Network Security Services (NSS) version 1.13 and above (used by Firefox and Google Chrome)
- Solaris Cryptographic Framework on Solaris 10 onwards.
- lambdaWorks crypto - an open source JVM crypto library
- 7-Zip 9.1 
- BestCrypt Volume Encryption
- Bloombase Cryptographic Module
- Conceal File encryption utility for Windows 
- Citrix XenClient 1.0 and on
- DiskCryptor 0.9
- DiskSec 1.85
- dm-crypt for full-disk encryption on Linux
- Embrane Heleos 2.0
- FileVault version 2 (Mac OS X Lion) AES full disk encryption 
- McAfee Endpoint Encryption for PC 6.x
- FreeBSD's OpenCrypto API (aesni(4) driver)
- OpenSSL from version 1.0.1
- Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Patchset 1 (220.127.116.11) Transparent Data Encryption
- PGP Whole Disk Encryption 10.1.0+ (Only on Windows, The Mac OS X version since 10.2.0+)
- SafeGuard Enterprise 6.0 by Sophos (Utimaco)
- SecretAgent 6.1.1 and above from Information Security Corp.
- SecureDoc 5.2 by WinMagic
- TrueCrypt 7.0
- Vormetric Encryption 5
- AreaGuard Neo 1.7
Hardware acceleration in other architectures
AES support with unprivileged processor instructions is also available in the latest SPARC processor and in future ARM processors. The SPARC T4 processor, introduced in 2011, has user level instructions implementing AES rounds. These instructions are in addition to higher level encryption commands. The ARMv8 processor architecture, announced in 2011, will also have user level instructions which implement AES rounds. In Aug 2012 IBM announced that the forthcoming Power7+ architecture would have AES support. The commands in these architectures are not directly compatible with the AES-NI commands, but implement similar functionality.
VIA x86 CPUs, AMD Geode, and Marvell Kirkwood (ARM, mv_cesa in Linux), use driver based accelerated AES handling instead. (see Crypto API (Linux)) The following chips, while supporting AES hardware acceleration, do not support the AES-NI instruction set
- "Intel Software Network". Intel. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- Shay Gueron (2010). "Intel Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Instruction Set White Paper". Intel. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Carry-Less Multiplication". Intel.
- ARK: Advanced Search
- AnandTech - The Sandy Bridge Review: Intel Core i7-2600K, i5-2500K and Core i3-2100 Tested
- Compare Intel® Products
- AES-NI support in TrueCrypt (Sandy Bridge problem)
- "Some products can support AES New Instructions with a Processor Configuration update, in particular, i7-2630QM/i7-2635QM, i7-2670QM/i7-2675QM, i5-2430M/i5-2435M, i5-2410M/i5-2415M. Please contact OEM for the BIOS that includes the latest Processor configuration update.".
- ARK: Advanced Search
- "Following Instructions". AMD. November 22, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- P. Schmid and A. Roos (2010). "AES-NI Performance Analyzed". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 2010-08-10.
- T. Krovetz, W. Dai (2010). "How to get fast AES calls?". Crypto++ user group. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- "Crypto++ 5.6.0 Pentium 4 Benchmarks". Crypto++ Website. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-10.
- "Information Security Corp., Cryptographic Development Kits (CDKs)".
- "Intel Advanced Encryption Standard Instructions (AES-NI)". Intel. March 2, 2010. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
- "AES-NI enhancements to NSS on Sandy Bridge systems". 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "System Administration Guide: Security Services, Chapter 13 Solaris Cryptographic Framework (Overview)". Oracle. September 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "High-performance cryptography for the JVM".
- Tom's Hardware: AES-NI Performance Analyzed (Benchmark Results: 7-Zip)
- Tom's Hardware: Four Compression And Archiving Solutions Compared (7-Zip 9.1 Beta)
- Conceal- Encrypting Data just got better
- "Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
- "FreeBSD 8.2 Release Notes". FreeBSD.org. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
- OpenSSL: CVS Web Interface
- "Transparent Data Encryption". Oracle. January 17, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- "Information Security Corp., SecretAgent 6".
- "SecureDoc Full Disk Encryption". April 8, 2011.
- Dan Anderson (2011). "SPARC T4 OpenSSL Engine". Oracle. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Richard Grisenthwaite (2011). "ARMv8 Technology Preview". ARM. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Timothy Prickett Morgan (2012). "All the sauce on Big Blue's hot chip: More on Power7+". The Register. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "AMD Geode™ LX Processor Family Technical Specifications". AMD.
- "VIA Padlock Security Engine". VIA. unknown. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- "VIA Eden-N Processors". VIA. unknown. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- "VIA C7 Processors". VIA. unknown. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- Intel® Advanced Encryption Standard Instructions (AES-NI)
- AES instruction set whitepaper (4.4 Mbyte, pdf) // Intel