81st (West Africa) Division
|81st (West Africa) Division|
|Active||1943 - 1945|
|Part of||Fourteenth Army (United Kingdom)|
|Engagements||Second World War|
|Frederick Joseph Loftus-Tottenham|
|Tarantula Spider, in black on a yellow circular background|
|British Army Infantry Divisions (1914–present)|
|80th Infantry Division||82nd (West Africa) Division|
The inspiration for the division's formation came from General George Giffard, commander of the British Army's West Africa Command, who subsequently commanded India Command's Eastern Army, facing the Japanese army on the frontier between India and Burma. Giffard had wide experience with African troops, and was eager for them to participate in the war.
The framework around which the division was formed was the Royal West African Frontier Force. One of the brigades (the 3rd West African) and several of the supporting units which formed the division had already seen action with the 11th (African) Division, against the Italians in East Africa.
The division was established as the 1st (West Africa) Division on 1 March, 1943. Three days later it was renamed the 81st (West Africa) Division, taking the next vacant number in the list of British infantry divisions. The division's badge was a spider, in black on a yellow circular background. This spider was a reference to Ananse, a cunning character in Ashanti mythology, and drawn so that when a soldier raised his weapon to fire, the spider would appear to be going forwards.
The division arrived in India on 14 August, 1943. The movement of the 5th (West Africa) Brigade was delayed, however, after the troopship which was to carry it was lost in the German attack on Convoy Faith off Portugal on the night of 11/12 July 1943. The 3rd (West Africa) Brigade was detached to the Chindits, and was intended to garrison jungle bases for the raiding columns. The remainder of the division took part in the second Arakan campaign from February to May, 1944, operating in the Kaladan Valley on the flank of Indian XV Corps in which this division suffered several hundreds of casualties by Indian National Army (during the Battle of the Admin Box). Towards the end of the campaign, the division was forced to withdraw up the valley.
Rejoined by 3rd Brigade, and converted to a standard establishment, the division took part in the third Arakan Campaign in December, 1944. This time, the Japanese abandoned the province. The division was withdrawn to India to rest on 22 April, 1945. On 31 August, it was returned to West Africa and disbanded.
Character and Organisation
The division was originally intended to operate on a pack basis, with porters carrying all equipment and supplies. Lieutenant General William Slim, then commanding XV Corps, commented on first inspecting units of the division in late 1943:
Their discipline and smartness were impressive, and they were more obviously at home in the jungle than any troops I had yet seen... I was at once struck by two things. First, by the horde of unarmed porters who were needed to carry supplies, ammunition, baggage and the heavier weapons, and secondly by the large number of white men in a unit, fifty or sixty to a battalion. Accustomed as I was to Indian battalions in the field with usually only seven or eight Europeans, it struck me as an unnecessarily generous supply.
Order of Battle (as of February 1, 1944)
General Officer Commanding : Major General Frederick Joseph Loftus-Tottenham
- 5 (West Africa) Infantry Brigade
- 5th Bn. The Gold Coast Regiment
- 7th Bn. The Gold Coast Regiment
- 8th Bn. The Gold Coast Regiment
- 5th Light Battery, West African Artillery
- 3rd Field Company, West African Engineers
- 6 (West Africa) Infantry Brigade
- 1st Bn. The Gambia Regiment
- 1st Bn. The Sierra Leone Regiment
- 4th Bn. The Nigeria Regiment
- 3rd Light Battery WAA
- 6th Field Company WAE
- Divisional Units
- 11th (East Africa) Division Scouts
- 81st (West Africa) Infantry Division Regiment
- 1st Light Anti-Aircraft/Anti-Tank Regiment WAA
- 8th Field Park Company WAE
3 (West Africa) Infantry Brigade (detached to Special Force)
- 6th Bn. The Nigeria Regiment
- 7th Bn. The Nigeria Regiment
- 12th Bn. The Nigeria Regiment
- Defeat into Victory, William Slim, Cassell, 1956
- 81 (West Africa) Infantry Division at Orders of Battle.com?[dead link]
- Burma Star organisation page
- British Military History
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