Água de Pau
- This article is about the parish. For the volcano of the same name, see Água de Pau (volcano).
|Água de Pau|
|Civil Parish (Freguesia)|
Água de Pau beach, along the southern coastal area, separated from the village of Caloura
|Official name: Freguesia de Água de Pau|
|Name origin: água de pau, Portuguese for water of wood|
|Localities||Água de Pau, Caloura, Cerco, Cinzeiro, Galera, Jubileu|
|Center||Água de Pau|
|- elevation||103 m (338 ft)|
|Highest point||Pico da Barrosa|
|- location||Serra de Água de Pau, Água de Pau, Lagoa|
|- elevation||921.54 m (3,023 ft)|
|Lowest point||Sea level|
|- location||Atlantic Ocean|
|- elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Length||5.31 km (3 mi), West-East|
|Width||6.97 km (4 mi), North-South|
|Area||17.43 km2 (7 sq mi)|
|- land||17.03 km2 (7 sq mi)|
|- urban||.40 km2 (0 sq mi)|
|Density||179.12 / km2 (464 / sq mi)|
|- Parish||28 July 1500|
|- Civil Parish||c. 1515|
|- location||Largo de Santiago, Água de Pau, Lagoa|
|President Junta||Roberto Manuel Pereira de Sousa|
|President Assembleia||Mónica Isabel Barranqueiro Domingues|
|- summer (DST)||Azores (UTC0)|
|ISO 3166-2 code||PT-|
|Postal Zone||9560-217 Lagoa|
|Area Code & Prefix||(+351) 292 XXX-XXXX|
|Patron Saint||Nossa Senhora dos Anjos|
|Parish Address||Largo de Santiago, 27
|Wikimedia Commons: Água de Pau (Lagoa)|
|Statistics from INE (2001); geographic detail from Instituto Geográfico Português (2010)|
Água de Pau is a civil parish in the municipality of Lagoa in the Portuguese Azores. It is the third-largest by population, but largest parish in the municipality of Lagoa; the population in 2001 was 3,122 in an area of 17.43 km² (its density is 179.1/km²).
There are various theories as to the origin of the villa's name, Água de Pau, which literally means water of wood (which can be interpreted as waters where wood exist). The most recognized story pertains to early settlers whom, upon arriving in the vicinity of the coast, noticed a large ravine emptying into the ocean from a swamp. Another story defended locally is that the name derived from the corruption of the phrase "Água do Paúl" (pául being a term for swamp or bog), which itself referred to the "Ribeira do Paúl", an old ravine that existed in the area behind the older parochial church of Nossa Senhora dos Anjos. The Paúl has long since disappeared, and the area behind the church has been cultivated over the decades. Nossa Senhora dos Anjos dos Céus was founded, as was the custom, in the center of the faith community and it is likely that this area was initial settlement for the community.
What is known, is that the settlement is concentrated around this church (dating back to about 1444) owing to the abundance of potable water and fertile lands. On 28 July 1515, the parish was incorporated, and the administration elevated, to the status of vila (town) by King D. Manuel I; this municipal seat, its territory comprising about a half a league of land, was de-annexed from the neighbouring territory from Vila Franca.
Its urban nucleus, with its narrow streets, are typical of the colored houses, flowered avenues and traditional homes of the older buildings of Portugal, but following the 1522 earthquake many of these homes were destroyed: reconstruction was completed on 10 November 1525.
Its administrative role lasted for 330 years, until 24 June 1853, when the parish was incorporated into the municipality of Lagoa, while still retaining the honorific villa title (under the Regional Legislative Decree #29/2003/A), to function as a civil parish.
A villa of Água de Pau is located along the southern coast of São Miguel Island, approximately 7 kilometers from the municipal center of Lagoa. It is bordered by the Lagoan parishes of Santa Cruz and Ribeira Chã, the Riberia Grande parishes of Santa Bárbara and Ribeira Seca (to the north) and Água de Alto (to the east in the municipality of Vila Franca do campo).
The village has a rich architectural history, and can be seen in many of the civil and religious buildings erected over the centuries. The water fountains are particularly important vistiges of the historical community. To many of the local residents, these fountains were the sources of water, and centers of community meetings and fraternization. The main Chafariz de Água de Pau, located in the Largo de São Pedro, the fountain Praça da Republica and the water fountain of Nossa Senhora dos Anjos are important markers of community nuclei within the villa.
- Casa do Capitão-Mor - located in the Rua da Natividade, the house of the Captain-major was the residence of João Policarpo Botelho de Arruda and is an example of 18th-19th Century architecture.
- Junta de Freguesia de Água de Pau - the civil parish office building, constructed in 18th Century, by the father of the old Captain-major of the villa of Água de Pau. It is a rectangular building, with a front facade of basalt rock, a private park and an older chapel, utilized as offices by the local mayor. This building is also referred to as the Casa da Estrela ("House of the Star") because its owner, Floriano Vítor Borges (who was responsible for many of the large public works on the island of São Miguel), placed a copper star on the main door (in the first half of the 20th Century).
- Convent of Caloura – the convent and annex chapel of Nossa Senhora das Dores is located in the resort of the same name. The main nave of the church is covered in poli-chromaticazulejos, with the main altar covered in gold leaf, in addition to strange images of bearded angels. Until 1541, the convent was a residence for many nuns, and later replaced by monks owing to constant attacks by pirates in the area. An image of Senhor Santo Cristo dos Milagres, gifted by the Pope, resided with the nuns and traveled with them to the Convent da Esperança, in Ponta Delgada. The convent is currently private property.
- Parochial Church of Nossa Senhora dos Anjos – In the village of Água de Pau, it is located on a small hill along the main regional road passing through the village. This church was "decorated" by King D. Manuel I, for the services of several local men, but the church was destroyed during the 1522 earthquake. The new temple was begun in 1525, and completed in the Baroque-style in 1744, expanding the interior to three naves (a royal coat-of-arms and rich panels of azulejos are part of the interior).
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora do Monte Santo – located on a hill in Água de Pau, this chapel was created after a Marian apparition by a local child, Maria Joana Tavares do Canto and her friend (but later approximately 12,000 people witnessed the apparition of the Virigin Mary on July 5, 1918). The chapel was constructed by the parents of Maria Joana, in a hexagonal design with an image of Nossa Senhora do Monte alongside the altar. In 1998, with the authorization of the Bishop of the Azores, an illuminated-cross was constructed behind the chapel by the Associação Católica Cristo Jovem.
- Chapel of São Pedro – located in the cemetery of Água do Pau in 1907, and extended in 2000 to include a museum.
- Chapel of São Tiago – located in the Largo do Santiago in Água do Pau, it was constructed in 1700 and dedicated to the Apostle James; since 1986, it has been used as a mortuary chapel.
Água de Pau's principal festival occurs on the assumption day of Nossa Senhora dos Anjos aos Céus, on August 15: the second oldest religious festival on the island of São Miguel. Locals and tourists participate in the event, that includes promessas, petitions to the Virigin Mary and prayers of thanksgiving. A traditional procession runs through the streets of the villa, showing the devotion and faith of the local community. In the following weekend the traditional Festa do Pescador (Fisherman's Festival) in the seaside resort of Caloura is celebrated. In addition to music and traditional choruses, the popular local cuisine is celebrated with fried Largehead hairtail and mackerel, washed-down with local red wine and accompanied with corn bread. The feast day of Nossa Senhora das Dores is also widely celebrated, on the second or third Sunday in September.
The villas also participates in the annual Festivals of the Divine Holy Spirit, celebrated in its six princiapl impérios or religious niche/chapels: the Império da Festa, the Império da Trindade, the Império de São João, the Império do Coração de Jesus, the Império de São Pedro and the Império de São Tiago.
Celebrations to honor the elevation of Água de Pau to the status of villa, on July 28, are also popular in the community, and celebrated in the Largo de São Tiago and Casa da Junta (the parish house).
- Noé, Paula (2012). In SIPA. "Convento da Caloura/Recolhimento da Caloura (no.PT072101010007)" (in Portuguese). Lisbon, Portugal: SIPA – Sistema de Informação para o Património Arquitectónico. Retrieved 25 August 2012.